Monday, 18 April 2016
PRACTICE QUESTIONS PART -3 ANSWERS
201. Answer A is correct. Cancer of the liver frequently leads to severe nausea and vomiting, thus the need for altering nutritional needs. The problems in answers B, C, and D are of lesser concern and, thus, are incorrect in this instance.
202. Answer C is correct. Daily measuring of the abdominal girth is the best method of determining early ascites. Measuring with a paper tape measure and marking the measured area is the most objective method of estimating ascites. Inspection and checking for fluid waves, in answers A and D, are more subjective and, thus, are incorrect for this question. Palpation of the liver, in answer B, will not tell the amount of ascites.
203. Answer B is correct. The vital signs indicate hypovolemic shock or fluid volume deficit. In answers A, C, and D, cerebral tissue perfusion, airway clearance, and sensory perception alterations are not symptoms and, therefore, are incorrect.
204. Answer A is correct. The client with sickle cell is likely to experience symptoms of hypoxia if he becomes dehydrated or lacks oxygen. Extreme exercise, especially in warm weather, can exacerbate the condition, so the fact that the client plays baseball should be of great concern to the visiting nurse. Answers B, C, and D are not factors for concern with sickle cell disease.
205. Answer D is correct. The client with neutropenia should not have potted or cut flowers in the room. Cancer patients are extremely susceptible to bacterial infections. Answers A, B, and C will not help to prevent bacterial invasions and, therefore, are incorrect.
206. Answer B is correct. Clients who have not had surgery to the face or neck would benefit from lowering the head of the bed, as in answer A. However, in this situation lowering the client’s head could further interfere with the airway. Therefore, the best answer is answer B, increasing the infusion and placing the client in supine position. Answers C and D are not necessary at this time
207. Answer C is correct.
If the client pulls the chest tube out of the chest, the nurse should first cover the insertion site with an occlusive dressing, such as a Vaseline gauze. Then the nurse should call the doctor, who will order a chest x-ray and possibly reinsert the tube. Answers A, B, and D are not the first priority in this case.
208. Answer A is correct. An INR of 8 indicates that the blood is too thin. The normal INR is 2.0–3.0, so answer B is incorrect because the doctor will not increase the dosage of coumadin. Answer C is incorrect because now is not the time to instruct the client about the therapy. Answer D is not correct because there is no need to increase the neurological assessment.
209. Answer C is correct. The food indicating the client’s understanding of dietary management of osteoporosis is the yogurt, with approximately 400mg of calcium. The other foods are good choices, but not as good as the yogurt; therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.
210. Answer A is correct. There is no need to avoid taking the blood pressure in the left arm. Answers B, C, and D are all actions that should be taken for the client receiving magnesium sulfate for preeclampsia.
211. Answer D is correct.
If the client’s mother refuses the blood transfusion, the doctor should be notified. Because the client is a minor, the court might order treatment. Answer A is incorrect because the mother is the legal guardian and can refuse the blood transfusion to be given to her daughter. Answers B and C are incorrect because it is not the primary responsibility of the nurse to encourage the mother to consent or explain the consequences.
212. Answer B is correct. The nurse should be most concerned with laryngeal edema because of the area of burn. Answer A is of secondary priority. Hyponatremia and hypokalemia are also of concern but are not the primary concern; thus, answers C and D are incorrect.
213. Answer D is correct. The client with anorexia shows the most improvement by weight gain. Selecting a balanced diet is useless if the client does not eat the diet, so answer A is incorrect. The hematocrit, in answer B, might improve by several means, such as blood transfusion, but that does not indicate improvement in the anorexic condition, so B is incorrect. The tissue turgor indicates fluid, not improvement of anorexia, so answer C is incorrect.
214. Answer D is correct. Paresthesia of the toes is not normal and can indicate compartment syndrome. At this time, pain beneath the cast is normal and, thus, would not be reported as a concern. The client’s toes should be warm to the touch, and pulses should be present. Answers A, B, and C, then, are incorrect.
215. Answer B is correct. The best response from the nurse is to let the client know that it is normal to have a warm sensation when dye is injected for this procedure. Answers A, C, and D indicate that the nurse believes that the hot feeling is abnormal and, so, are incorrect.
216. Answer D is correct.
It is not necessary to wear gloves when taking the vital signs of the client, thus indicating further teaching for the nursing assistant. If the client has an active infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, gloves should be worn, but this is not indicated in this instance. The actions in answers A, B, and C are incorrect because they are indicative of infection control not mentioned in the question.
217. Answer D is correct. During ECT, the client will have a grand mal seizure. This indicates completion of the electroconvulsive therapy. Answers A, B, and C are incorrect because they do not indicate that the ECT has been completed.
218. Answer A is correct. An infection with pinworms begins when the eggs are ingested or inhaled. The eggs hatch in the upper intestine and mature in 2–8 weeks. The females then mate and migrate out the anus, where they lay up to 17,000 eggs, causing intense itching. The mother should be told to use a flashlight to examine the rectal area about 2–3 hours after the child is asleep. Placing clear tape on a tongue blade will allow the eggs to adhere to the tape. The specimen should then be evaluated in a lab. There is no need to scrape the skin, collect a stool specimen, or bring a sample of hair; therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
219. Answer B is correct. Erterobiasis, or pinworms, is treated with Vermox (mebendazole) or Antiminth (pyrantel pamoate). The entire family should be treated, to ensure that no eggs remain. Because a single treatment is usually sufficient, there is usually good compliance. The family should then be tested again in 2 weeks, to ensure that no eggs remain. Answers A, C, and D are inappropriate for this treatment and, therefore, incorrect.
220. Answer B is correct. The pregnant nurse should not be assigned to any client with radioactivity present, and the client with a radium implant poses the most risk to the pregnant nurse. The clients in answers A, C, and D are not radioactive; therefore, these answers are incorrect.
221. Answer A is correct. The client with cancer being treated with chemotherapy is immune suppressed and is at risk for opportunistic diseases such as pneumocystis. Answers B, C, and D are incorrect because these clients are not at a higher risk for opportunistic diseases than other clients.
222. Answer D is correct. Injecting an infant with an adult dose of Digitalis is considered malpractice, or failing to perform or performing an act that causes harm to the client. In answer A, negligence is failing to perform care for the client and, thus, is incorrect. In answer B, a tort is a wrongful act committed on the client or his belongings but, in this case, was accidental. Assault, in answer C, is not pertinent to this incident.
223. Answer D is correct. The registered nurse cannot insert sutures or clips unless specially trained to do so, as in the case of a nurse practitioner skilled to perform this task. The registered nurse can insert a Foley catheter, insert a nasogastric tube, and monitor central venous pressure.
224. Answer B is correct. The vital signs are abnormal and should be reported to the doctor immediately. A, B, and D are incorrect actions.
225. Answer B is correct. The nurse in answer B has the most experience in knowing possible complications involving preeclampsia. The nurse in answer A is a new nurse to the unit, and the nurses in answers C and D have no experience with the postpartum client.
226. Answer C is correct. Desferal is used to treat iron toxicity. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because they are antidotes for other drugs: Narcan is used to treat narcotic overdose; Digibind is used to treat dioxin toxicity; and Zinecard is used to treat doxorubicin toxicity.
227. Answer A is correct.
If the nurse charts information that he did not perform, she can be charged with fraud. Answer B is incorrect because malpractice is harm that results to the client due to an erroneous action taken by the nurse. Answer C is incorrect because negligence is failure to perform a duty that the nurse knows should be performed. Answer D is incorrect because a tort is a wrongful act to the client or his belongings.
228. Answer D is correct. The client who should receive priority is the client with multiple sclerosis and who is being treated with IV cortisone. This client is at highest risk for complications. Answers A, B, and C are incorrect because these clients are more stable and can be seen later.
229. Answer B is correct. Out of all of these clients, it is best to place the pregnant client and the client with a broken arm and facial lacerations in the same room. These two clients probably do not need immediate attention and are least likely to disturb each other. The clients in answers A, C, and D need to be placed in separate rooms because their conditions are more serious, they might need immediate attention, and they are more likely to disturb other patients.
230. Answer A is correct. Before instilling eyedrops, the nurse should cleanse the area with warm water. A 6-year-old child is not developmentally ready to instill his own eyedrops, so answer B is incorrect. The mother cannot be allowed to administer the eye drops in the hospital setting so answer C incorrect. Although the eye might appear to be clear, the nurse should instill the eyedrops, as ordered (answer D).
231. Answer D is correct. To prevent urinary tract infections, the girl should clean the perineum from front to back to prevent e. coli contamination. Answer A is incorrect because drinking citrus juices will not prevent UTIs. Answers B and C are incorrect because UTI’s are not associated with the use of tampons or with tub baths.
232. Answer C is correct. The nurse should encourage rooming in, to promote parentchild attachment. It is okay for the parents to be in the room for assessment of the child, so answer A is incorrect. Allowing the child to have items that are familiar to him is allowed and encouraged; thus, answer B is incorrect. Answer D is incorrect and shows a lack of empathy for the child’s distress; it is an inappropriate response from the nurse.
233. Answer B is correct. The hearing aid should be stored in a warm, dry place and should be cleaned daily. A toothpick is inappropriate to clean the aid because it might break off in the hearing aide. Changing the batteries weekly is not necessary; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
234. Answer C is correct. Always remember your ABC’s (airway, breathing, circulation) when selecting an answer. Although answers B and D might be appropriate for this child, answer C should have the highest priority. Answer A does not apply for a child who has undergone a tonsillectomy.
235. Answer A is correct.
If the child has bacterial pneumonia, a high fever is usually present. Bacterial pneumonia usually presents with a productive cough, so answer B is incorrect. Rhinitis, as stated in answer C, is often seen with viral pneumonia and is incorrect for this case. Vomiting and diarrhea are usually not seen with pneumonia; thus, answer D is incorrect.
236. Answer B is correct. For a child with LTB and the possibility of complete obstruction of the airway, emergency intubation equipment should always be kept at the bedside. Intravenous supplies and fluid will not treat an obstruction, nor will supplemental oxygen; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
237. Answer C is correct. Exophthalmos (protrusion of eyeballs) often occurs with hyperthyroidism. The client with hyperthyroidism will often exhibit tachycardia, increased appetite, and weight loss. Answers A, B, and D are not associated with hyperthyroidism.
238. Answer D is correct. The child with celiac disease should be on a gluten-free diet. Answer D is the only choice of foods that do not contain gluten. Therefore, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.
239. Answer C is correct. Remember the ABC’s (airway, breathing, circulation) when answering this question. Before notifying the physician or assessing the child’s pulse, oxygen should be applied to increase the child’s oxygen saturation. The normal oxygen saturation for a child is 92%–100%. Answer A is important but not the priority, answer B is inappropriate, and answer D is also not the priority.
240. Answer B is correct. Normal amniotic fluid is straw colored and odorless, so this is the observation the nurse should expect. An amniotomy is artificial rupture of membranes, causing a straw-colored fluid to appear in the vaginal area. Fetal heart tones of 160 indicate tachycardia, and this is not the observation to watch for. Greenish fluid is indicative of meconium, not amniotic fluid. If the nurse notes the umbilical cord, the client is experiencing a prolapsed cord. This would need to be reported immediately. For this question, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
241. Answer D is correct. The client is usually given epidural anesthesia at approximately three centimeters dilation. Answer A is vague, answer B would indicate the end of the first stage of labor, and answer C indicates the transition phase, not the latent phase of labor.
242. Answer B is correct. The normal fetal heart rate is 120–160bpm. A heart rate of 100–110bpm is bradycardia. The first action would be to turn the client to the left side and apply oxygen. Answer A is not indicated at this time. Answer C is not the best action for clients experiencing bradycardia. There is no data to indicate the need to move the client to the delivery room at this time, so answer D is incorrect as well.
243. Answer D is correct. The expected effect of Pitocin is progressive cervical dilation. Pitocin causes more intense contractions, which can increase the pain; thus, answer A is incorrect. Answers B and C are incorrect because cervical effacement is caused by pressure on the presenting part and there are not infrequent contractions.
244. Answer B is correct. Applying a fetal heart monitor is the appropriate action at this time. Preparing for a caesarean section is premature; placing the client in Trendelenburg is also not an indicated action, and an ultrasound is not needed based on the finding. Therefore, answer B is the best answer, and answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
245. Answer B is correct. Absent variability is not normal and could indicate a neurological problem. Answers A, C, and D are normal findings. 246. Answer D is correct. Clients admitted in labor are told not to eat during labor, to avoid nausea and vomiting. Ice chips might be allowed, although this amount of fluid might not be sufficient to prevent fluid volume deficit. In answer A, impaired gas exchange related to hyperventilation would be indicated during the transition phase, not the early phase of labor. Answers B and C are not correct because clients during labor are allowed to change position as she desires.
247. Answer D is correct. This information indicates a late deceleration. This type of deceleration is caused by uteroplacental insufficiency, or lack of oxygen. Answer A is incorrect because there is no data to support the conclusion that the baby is asleep; answer B results in a variable deceleration; and answer C is indicative of an early deceleration.
248. Answer C is correct. The initial action by the nurse observing a variable deceleration should be to turn the client to the side, preferably the left side. Administering oxygen is also indicated. Answer A is not called for at this time. Answer B is incorrect because it is not needed, and answer D is incorrect because there is no data to indicate that the monitor has been applied incorrectly.
249. Answer D is correct. Answers A, B, and C indicate ominous findings on the fetal heart monitor and so are incorrect in this instance. Accelerations with movement are normal, so answer D is the reassuring pattern.
250. Answer C is correct. Epidural anesthesia decreases the urge to void and sensation of a full bladder. A full bladder decreases the progression of labor. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because the bladder does not fill more rapidly due to the epidural, the client is not in a trancelike state, and the client’s level of consciousness is not altered, and there is no evidence that the client is too embarrassed to ask for a bedpan.
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