Thursday, 31 December 2015
PRACTICE QUESTIONS PART =08 ANSWERS AND RATIONALE
201. Answer D is correct. Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist. Leucovorin is the drug given for toxicity to this drug. It is not used to treat irondeficiency anemia, create a synergistic effects, or increase the number of circulating neutrophils. Therefore, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.
202. Answer B is correct. The client who is allergic to dogs, eggs, rabbits, and chicken feathers is most likely allergic to the rubella vaccine. The client who is allergic to neomycin is also at risk. There is no danger to the client if he has an order for a TB skin test, ELISA test, or chest x-ray; thus, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
203. Answer B is correct. Zantac (rantidine) is a histamine blocker that should be given with meals for optimal effect, not before meals. However, Tagamet (cimetidine) is a histamine blocker that can be given in one dose at bedtime. Neither of these drugs should be given before or after meals, so answers A and D are incorrect.
204. Answer C is correct. The proximal end of the double-barrel colostomy is the end toward the small intestines. This end is on the client’s right side. The distal end, as in answers A, B, and D, is on the client’s left side.
205. Answer A is correct. If the nurse checks the fundus and finds it to be displaced to the right or left, this is an indication of a full bladder. This finding is not associated with hypotension or clots, as stated in answer B. Oxytoxic drugs (Pitocin) are drugs used to contract the uterus, so answer C is incorrect. It has nothing to do with displace-ment of the uterus. Answer D is incorrect because displacement is associated with a full bladder, not vaginal bleeding.
206. Answer C is correct. Clients with an internal defibrillator or a pacemaker should not have an MRI because it can cause dysrhythmias in the client with a pacemaker. If the client has a need for oxygen, is claustrophobic, or is deaf, he can have an MRI, but provisions such as extension tubes for the oxygen, sedatives, or a signal system should be made to accommodate these problems. Therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.
207. Answer C is correct. A 6-month-old is too old for the colorful mobile. He is too young to play with the electronic game or the 30-piece jigsaw puzzle. The best toy for this age is the cars in a plastic container, so answers A, B, and D are incorrect.
208. Answer C is correct. The client with polio has muscle weakness. Periods of rest throughout the day will conserve the client’s energy. A hot bath can cause burns; however, a warm bath would be helpful, so answer A is incorrect. Strenuous exercises are not advisable, making answer B incorrect. Visual disturbances that are directly associated with polio that cannot be corrected with glasses; therefore, answer D is incorrect.
209. Answer B is correct. The client with a protoepisiotomy will need stool softeners such as docusate sodium. Suppositories are given only with an order from the doctor, Methergine is a drug used to contract the uterus, and Parlodel is an antiParkinsonian drug; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
210. Answer C is correct. Total Parenteral Nutrition is a high-glucose solution. This therapy often causes the glucose levels to be elevated. Because this is a common complica-tion, insulin might be ordered. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect. TPN is used to treat negative nitrogen balance; it will not lead to negative nitrogen balance. Total Parenteral Nutrition can be managed with oral hypoglycemic drugs, but it is difficult to do so. Total Parenteral Nutrition will not lead to further pancreatic disease.
211. Answer B is correct. The client who is 10 weeks pregnant should be assessed to determine how she feels about the pregnancy. It is too early to discuss preterm labor, too late to discuss whether she was using a method of birth control, and after the client delivers, a discussion of future children should be instituted. Thus, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
212. Answer A is correct. The best IV fluid for correction of dehydration is normal saline because it is most like normal serum. Dextrose pulls fluid from the cell, lactated Ringer’s contains more electrolytes than the client’s serum, and dextrose with normal saline will also alter the intracellular fluid. Therefore, answers B, C, and D are incor-rect.
213. Answer A is correct. A thyroid scan uses a dye, so the client should be assessed for allergies to iodine. The client will not have a bolus of fluid, will not be asleep, and will not have a urinary catheter inserted, so answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
214. Answer B is correct. RhoGam is used to prevent formation of Rh antibodies. It does not provide immunity to Rh isoenzymes, eliminate circulating Rh antibodies, or con-vert the Rh factor from negative to positive; thus, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
215. Answer B is correct. A client with a fractured foot often has a short leg cast applied to stabilize the fracture. A spica cast is used to stabilize a fractured pelvis or vertebral fracture. Kirschner wires are used to stabilize small bones such as toes and the client will most likely have a cast or immobilizer, so answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
216. Answer A is correct. Iridium seeds can be expelled during urination, so the client should be taught to strain his urine and report to the doctor if any of the seeds are expelled. Increasing fluids, reporting urinary frequency, and avoiding prolonged sitting are not necessary; therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
217. Answer C is correct. Immunosuppressants are used to prevent antibody formation. Antivirals, antibiotics, and analgesics are not used to prevent antibody production, so answers A, B, and D are incorrect.
218. Answer A is correct. Before cataract removal, the client will have Mydriatic drops instilled to dilate the pupil. This will facilitate removal of the lens. Miotics constrict the pupil and are not used in cataract clients. A laser is not used to smooth and reshape the lens; the diseased lens is removed. Silicone oil is not injected in this client; thus, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
219. Answer C is correct. Placing simple signs that indicate the location of rooms where the client sleeps, eats, and bathes will help the client be more independent. Providing mirrors and pictures is not recommended with the client who has Alzheimer’s disease because mirrors and pictures tend to cause agitation, and alternating healthcare workers confuses the client; therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.
220. Answer C is correct.
A Jackson-Pratt drain is a serum-collection device commonly used in abdominal surgery. A Jackson-Pratt drain will not prevent the need for dress-ing changes, reduce edema of the incision, or keep the common bile duct open, so answers A, B, and D are incorrect. A t-tube is used to keep the common bile duct open.
221. Answer C is correct. The infant who is 32 weeks gestation will not be able to control his head, so head lag will be present. Mongolian spots are common in African American infants, not Caucasian infants; the client at 32 weeks will have scrotal rugae or redness. There is no alteration in the amount of amniotic fluid; therefore, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.
222. Answer A is correct. Hematuria in a client with a pelvic fracture can indicate trauma to the bladder or impending bleeding disorders. It is not unusual for the client to com-plain of muscles spasms with multiple fractures, so answer B is incorrect. Dizziness can be associated with blood loss and is nonspecific, making answer C incorrect. Nausea, as stated in answer D, is also common in the client with multiple traumas.
223. Answer C is correct. The client’s statement ―They are trying to kill me‖ indicates paranoid delusions. There is no data to indicate that the client is hearing voices or is intoxicated, so answers A and D are incorrect. Delusions of grandeur are fixed beliefs that the client is superior or perhaps a famous person, making answer B incorrect.
224. Answer B is correct. Because the nurse is unaware of when the bottle was opened or whether the saline is sterile, it is safest to obtain a new bottle. Answers A, C, and D are not safe practices.
225. Answer C is correct. Infants with an Apgar of 9 at 5 minutes most likely have acry-ocyanosis, a normal physiologic adaptation to birth. It is not related to the infant being hypothermic, experiencing bradycardia, or being lethargic; thus, answers A, B, and D are incorrect.
226. Answer A is correct. Rapid continuous rewarming of a frostbite primarily lessens cel-lular damage. It does not prevent formation of blisters. It does promote movement, but this is not the primary reason for rapid rewarming. It might increase pain for a short period of time as the feeling comes back into the extremity; therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
227. Answer D is correct. Hemodialysis works by using a dialyzing membrane to filter waste that has accumulated in the blood. It does not pass water through a dialyzing membrane nor does it eliminate plasma proteins or lower the pH, so answers A, B, and C are incorrect.
228. Answer B is correct. The client who is immune-suppressed and is exposed to measles should be treated with medications to boost his immunity to the virus. An antibiotic or antiviral will not protect the client and it is too late to place the client in isolation, so answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
229. Answer D is correct. The client with MRSA should be placed in isolation. Gloves, a gown, and a mask should be used when caring for the client and hand washing is very important. The door should remain closed, but a negative-pressure room is not neces-sary, so answers A and B are incorrect. MRSA is spread by contact with blood or body fluid or by touching the skin of the client. It is cultured from the nasal passages of the client, so the client should be instructed to cover his nose and mouth when he sneezes or coughs. It is not necessary for the client to wear the mask at all times; the nurse should wear the mask, so answer C is incorrect.
230. Answer B is correct. Pain related to phantom limb syndrome is due to peripheral nerv-ous system interruption. Answer A is incorrect because phantom limb pain can last sev-eral months or indefinitely. Answer C is incorrect because it is not psychological. It is also not due to infections, as stated in answer D.
231. Answer A is correct. During a Whipple procedure the head of the pancreas, which is a part of the stomach, the jejunum, and a portion of the stomach are removed and reanastomosed. Answer B is incorrect because the proximal third of the small intes-tine is not removed. The entire stomach is not removed, as in answer C, and in answer D, the esophagus is not removed.
232. Answer C is correct. Pepper is not processed and contains bacteria. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect because fruits should be cooked or washed and peeled, and salt and ketchup are allowed.
233. Answer A is correct. Coumadin is an anticoagulant. One of the tests for bleeding time is a Protime. This test should be done monthly. Eating more fruits and vegetables is not necessary, and dark-green vegetables contain vitamin K, which increases clotting, so answer B is incorrect. Drinking more liquids and avoiding crowds is not necessary, so answers C and D are incorrect.
234. Answer A is correct. The client who is having a central venous catheter removed should be told to hold his breath and bear down. This prevents air from entering the line. Answers B, C, and D will not facilitate removal.
235. Answer B is correct. Clients with a history of streptococcal infections could have anti-bodies that render the streptokinase ineffective. There is no reason to assess the client for allergies to pineapples or bananas, there is no correlation to the use of phenytoin and streptokinase, and a history of alcohol abuse is also not a factor in the order for streptokinase; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
236. Answer B is correct. The client who is immune-suppressed and has bone marrow suppression should be taught not to floss his teeth because platelets are decreased. Using oils and cream-based soaps is allowed, as is eating salt and using an electric razor; therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
237. Answer A is correct. The best method and safest way to change the ties of a tra-cheotomy is to apply the new ones before removing the old ones. B is incorrect because having a helper is good, but the helper might not prevent the client from coughing out the tracheotomy. Answer C is not the best way to prevent the client from coughing out the tracheotomy. D is incorrect because asking the doctor to suture the tracheotomy in place is not appropriate.
238. Answer D is correct. The output of 300mL is indicative of hemorrhage and should be reported immediately. Answer A does nothing to help the client. Milking the tube is done only with an order and will not help in this situation, and slowing the intravenous infusion is not correct; thus, answers B and C are incorrect.
239. Answer A is correct. The infant with tetralogy of Fallot has four heart defects. He will be treated with digoxin to slow and strengthen the heart. Epinephrine, aminophyline, and atropine will speed the heart rate and are not used in this client; therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
241. Answer A is correct. The toddler with a ventricular septal defect will tire easily. He will not grow normally but will not need more calories. He will be susceptible to bacterial infection, but he will be no more susceptible to viral infections than other children. Therefore, answers B, C, and D are incorrect.
242. Answer B is correct. A nonstress test determines periodic movement of the fetus. It does not determine lung maturity, show contractions, or measure neurological well-being, making answers A, C, and D incorrect.
245. Answer B is correct. Lovenox injections should be given in the abdomen, not in the deltoid muscle. The client should not aspirate after the injection or clear the air from the syringe before injection. Therefore, answers A, C, and D are incorrect.
246. Answer B is correct. Valium is not given in the same syringe with other medications, so answer A is incorrect. These medications can be given to the same client, so answer D is incorrect. In answer C, it is not necessary to wait to inject the second medication. Valium is an antianxiety medication, and Phenergan is used as an antiemetic.
247. Answer B is correct. Voiding every 3 hours prevents stagnant urine from collecting in the bladder, where bacteria can grow. Douching is not recommended and obtaining a urinalysis monthly is not necessary, making answers A and C incorrect. The client should practice wiping from front to back after voiding and bowel movements, so answer D is incorrect.
248. Answer C is correct. Of these clients, the one who should be assigned to the care of the nursing assistant is the client with dementia. Only an RN or the physician can place the client in seclusion, so answer A is incorrect. The nurse should empty the Foley catheter of the preeclamptic client because the client is unstable, making answer B incorrect. A nurse or physical therapist should ambulate the client with a fractured hip, so answer D is incorrect.
249. Answer A is correct. The client who has recently had a thyroidectomy is at risk for tracheal edema. A padded tongue blade is used for seizures and not for the client with tracheal edema, so answer B is incorrect. If the client experiences tracheal edema, the endotracheal tube or airway will not correct the problem, so answers C and D are incorrect.
250. Answer D is correct. Histoplasmosis is a fungus carried by birds. It is not transmitted to humans by cats, dogs, or turtles. Therefore, answers A, B, and C are incorrect.
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